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Joachim LГ¶w Geboren - Wo Ist Jogi LГ¶w Geboren 3 danske forterJoachim W. Du ahnst es wahrscheinlich schon: Im Spielcasino, genauer gesagt beim Roulette. Oblivion verhedderter dir diego eine laut arbeitslosengeld kostenlos den der. Löw ha ottenuto un contratto per due anni e ha annunciato che voleva continuare nella filosofia sviluppata con Klinsmann a giocare con uno stile offensivo.
Juni beendet. Nach einem Jahr Auszeit wurde Löw am 4. Dieser Platz wurde frei, nachdem Klinsmann sich entschieden hatte, seinen am Juli auslaufenden Vertrag nicht zu verlängern.
Löw erhielt zunächst einen Vertrag über zwei Jahre. Als sportliches Ziel nannte er den Gewinn der EM und erklärte seine Absicht, die von Klinsmann und ihm vertretene Linie in der sportlichen Leitung fortzuführen.
Sein Debüt gab er am August  mit einem gegen Schweden. Auch die drei folgenden Spiele gewann die Nationalmannschaft ohne Gegentor, so dass er der erste Bundestrainer ist, der mit vier Siegen ohne Gegentor begann.
September gewann die Nationalmannschaft mit Das sechste Spiel gegen Zypern am November war das erste Spiel, in dem die von ihm geführte Mannschaft wenig überzeugte.
Februar folgte ein im Freundschaftsspiel gegen die Schweiz, am Die erste Niederlage für Löw als Bundestrainer gab es am März in einem Testspiel gegen Dänemark mit Er setzte dabei insgesamt sechs Debütanten ein, darunter mit Patrick Helmes damals 1.
FC Köln auch einen Zweitligaspieler. August gelang dem von vielen Verletzungen geschwächten Team Löws ein Auswärtssieg gegen England, womit sie die erste Mannschaft war, die England im neuen Wembley-Stadion besiegte.
Nach bereits vorzeitig feststehender EM-Qualifikation nach dem in Irland verlor die ersatzgeschwächte deutsche Nationalmannschaft am Es war Löws erste Pflichtspiel-Niederlage als Bundestrainer.
Unter Löw erreichte die deutsche Mannschaft bei der Europameisterschaft nach zwölf Jahren erstmals wieder die K. Im letzten Vorrundenspiel der Gruppe B musste Deutschland mindestens ein Unentschieden gegen Gastgeber Österreich erreichen, das seinerseits einen Sieg brauchte, um sich für die folgende Runde zu qualifizieren.
Das Spiel endete für Deutschland. Dieses Spiel gewann Spanien mit und wurde damit Europameister. Mit einem Durchschnittsalter von unter 25 Jahren hatte Löw den jüngsten deutschen WM-Kader seit der Weltmeisterschaft von zusammengestellt.
Sechs Spieler des Kaders hatten zuvor die UEuropameisterschaft gewonnen. Letztlich legte er mit dieser überraschenden Zusammenstellung den Grundstein für eine in den nächsten Jahren sehr viel stärker auftretende deutsche Mannschaft als in den Jahren zuvor.
Nach der auf dem ersten Platz beendeten Gruppenphase der Weltmeisterschaft in Südafrika gelang im Achtelfinale ein Sieg über das englische Team sowie im Viertelfinale ein über Argentinien.
Beides sind die höchsten bisher erzielten Siege einer deutschen Mannschaft gegen diese Mannschaften.
Im Halbfinale musste sich die junge Mannschaft gegen die erfahrenen Spanier zwar knapp, aber beinahe chancenlos mit geschlagen geben.
Die deutsche Mannschaft war lediglich zu zwei Torchancen gekommen. Deutschland gewann alle drei Gruppenspiele, was zuvor keiner deutschen Mannschaft bei einer EM-Vorrunde gelungen war.
Im Viertelfinale stellte die Mannschaft beim gegen Griechenland mit dem Pflichtspielsieg in Folge einen neuen Weltrekord auf.
Kicker-Chefreporter Karlheinz Wild befand:. In der Qualifikation für die Weltmeisterschaft erzielte die deutsche Mannschaft unter Löw neun Siege und ein Remis und hatte am vorletzten Spieltag die Teilnahme an der WM gesichert.
Dabei erzielte die Mannschaft die meisten Tore aller europäischen Mannschaften, allerdings musste sie auch die meisten Gegentore aller direkt qualifizierten europäischen Mannschaften hinnehmen, hauptsächlich sieben Tore in zwei Spielen gegen den Zweitplatzierten Schweden.
Khedira, Lahm, Neuer, Schweinsteiger und Reus, der durch eine Verletzung im letzten Testspiel ganz ausfiel, sowie von einem Verkehrsunfall mit zwei verletzten Zuschauern während des Trainingslagers im Südtiroler Passeiertal geprägt.
Über das Achtelfinale gegen Algerien, das erst in der Verlängerung mit bezwungen wurde, erreichte Löws Mannschaft das Viertelfinale mit dem Gegner Frankreich und konnte sich hier mit durchsetzen.
Löw ist damit der erste und bisher einzige deutsche Weltmeistertrainer, der selbst nie für die Nationalmannschaft gespielt hat.
Mit zwei Siegen und einem Unentschieden gegen Polen zog Deutschland ins Achtelfinale ein, in dem es die Slowakei besiegte.
Dieses Spiel verlor sie mit Als Weltmeister war Deutschland für das Turnier qualifiziert. Zudem wurde auf eine intensive Vorbereitung verzichtet, wobei das Freundschaftsspiel gegen Dänemark und das WM-Qualifikationsspiel gegen San Marino zur Einspielung genutzt wurde.
Mit zwei Siegen, darunter der Sieg im Minute mit Nach den guten Turnierplatzierungen der Vorjahre mit dem Höhepunkt des Weltmeistertitels bei der WM und nach einer erfolgreichen Qualifikation, in der alle zehn Spiele gewonnen wurden, schied das DFB-Team bei der WM in Russland erstmals in seiner Geschichte bereits in der Vorrunde einer Weltmeisterschaft aus.
Dem gingen eine Auftaktniederlage gegen Mexiko, ein Sieg gegen Schweden sowie eine Niederlage gegen Südkorea voraus. Es war das erste Mal seit 45 Jahren, dass ein Cheftrainer ein Spiel der deutschen Nationalelf verpasste.
See M. Appelbaum, Conservation Treatment Methodology. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann In a growing number of museums this staff partnership has taught us to appreciate the mass of information gleaned from pooling the resources of this variety of disciplines.
Collaborative interdisciplinary projects with participants from both the humanities and the natural sciences art historians, historians, conservators and conservation.
Nancy Hushion, a private museums consultant in Canada. Fundraising in. Crossing Conservation Boundries. It can serve If the day-to-day duties of conservators do not permit them.
Documentation is, however, an integral part of the conservation process; therefore, it must be encouraged. However, even if many museums in the past three decades have established digital collections.
Rome , pp. While combining and shaping materials to reflect his. Rudenstine and T. Detail of the saddle made for the wedding of the Prince Elect of Denmark, supplied by Gert Osserijn, Velvet, gold, pearls and gems, length 95 em.
Rosenborg Castle. The September issue of APOLLO includes articles on fake and genuine Chinese ceramics; an eighteenth-century lawsuit between artists resolved; the French laws relating to export licenses for works of art, and the achievements of the archaeological survey in India.
A conservator examines this exceptional panelled room with a scientific eye and discovers some secrets of the mass-production of art in early seventeenth-century Antwerp n , having purchased a sizeable area outside the eastern ramparts of Copenhagen, Christian IV ordered the erection of a 'country house', which was completed in It was a two-storey house of modest size, now the nucleus of the southern half of the present Rosenborg Castle Fig.
From to , the country house was extended to its present length, and from to , a third floor was added, as were 'The Long Hall' and three tall, slim towers with spires.
Regrettably, in this staircase was demolished as part of an external 'restoration' by Lauritz de Thurah Figs and 7 were photographed by the author 1 The east facade of Rosenborg Castle.
Engraving by Lauritz de Thurah, Christian IV chose the ground floor of the northern wing for his private apartments. Today, two of his rooms are exactly as they were when brought into use in and they are the first that visitors to.
The king's study is in the north-eastern tower. Its dado is painted with mythological and landscape subjects. The central decoration of the richly carved panelled ceiling is a scene from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, showing Angelica and Medoro carving their initials on a tree.
The large room next to the study, on the northern side, was the king's living room, known as the Winter Room Plate I. Christian IV's monogram and the year are on the large, marbled sandstone mantelpiece.
The ceiling paintings date from and were painted by Pieter Isaacsz for the room directly above. During alterations in the early eighteenth century, the paintings were moved to the Winter Room.
The walls are decorated with seventy-five panel paintings set in richly carved oak panelling. In three rows, they are inserted between twenty-two fluted columns with Ionic capitals, strapwork, and impressive bases.
The bases are carved with masks, each grimacing more astonishingly than the next. Even though the living room contains a unique collection of Flemish paintings from a single period, few historians have studied and described them, and only' in appendices.
The main stages of the creation of the Winter Room were therefore as follows. The joinery work of the panelling was begun in by Gregers Greus active before Valentin Dresler active before gave the ceiling its stucco which was picked out by the painter, Samuel Clausen active before The mantelpiece was built in , as shown by the date.
It has so far been assumed that with this, the Winter Room was completed. More than years ago, F. Friis, one of the first historians to write about the building of the castle, found a document according to which a Copenhagen master joiner, Willum Moor active before in and completed the work left by the death of Greus.
He drew the conclusion that the work on the Winter Room, as one continuous project, was only completed then.
In it he claims that must have been the year of completion, primarily basing this on the in-. It has been assumed hitherto that these seventyfive panel pictures were already in the king's large collection of paintings before the Winter Room was completed.
This assumption was supported by the fact that some of the paintings have been cut and it seemed natural to conclude that this was done to achieve a uniform size for' this decorative project.
However, extensive examination of the paintings, the painting techniques used, the panels' construction and formats, and the dif-. Photographed under raking light.
The raised burr recurs at the same intervals on a number of boards showing that they were manufactured in a Single process 3 The city arms of Antwerp burnt into the back of the panel illustrated in Fig.
To the right, the stamped clover leaf mark of the carpenter and frame-maker, Michael Claessens II before after These irregularities are parallel with the direction of planing and have been caused by large or small notches in the cutting edge of the plane iron.
These notches produced raised burrs, and careful measurements in. My research, however,s proves that these descriptions are misleading in one or more points.
The Winter Room in its original form was indeed completed in Shortly afterwards, however, the king ordered a complete, carefully planned, transformation, and that is the room we see today.
At one stage, work was speeded up, but this was typical of this Danish Renaissance king, who was prone to making sudden and quick changes in his building projects.
The seventy-five paintings are mostly of landscapes or of hunting scenes, though some have religious or mythological motifs.
None of the many paintings is signed, though one is dated , and the Danish archives have so far not been able to provide irrefutable evidence of their origins.
During my studies, many of the paintings were taken out from the panelling, in most cases for the first time since they were mounted. This has made it possible to study the craftsmanship applied to the individual panels and their frames.
Furthermore, the brickwork behind could be scrutinized for evidence of possible structural alterations.
All seventy-five pictures are painted directly onto oak panels, mostly on two or three planks glued together. These joints are visible on the back, and so is the bevel-.
The lower panel bears the mark of Guilliam Aertssens before after 4a Drawing of Guilliam Aertssens's mark.
Each painting has three frames: the innermost frame is gilded, with a black decorative pattern painted on it; the second frame is painted black and this too, is embellished, but with gilded designs.
Outside these two frames is a third of plain oak which keeps the other two, and the painting, in place in the oak panelling. The laterally reversed, wavy pattern, typical of oak, is repeated on the back of the boards, which shows that each board section has been sawn radially from the trunk.
This means that warping through drying-out is almost avoided. As a result, the condition of the paintings in general is excellent though they have been in the same place for more than years.
On several planks, traces of the saw's cutting are clearly evident, while others have been given a final planing Fig.
This process has been of immense importance to the understanding of the way in which the room was decorated. Analysis of the plane traces on the back of the pictures show that there are many irregularities in the otherwise smoothly planed surfaces.
This proves that the same plane must have been used in the treatment of the backs of the boards concerned. The inescapable conclusion is that several boards were manufactured in one single work process.
Had this not been the case, the plane marks would not have been uniform, since a carpenter's plane would have been sharpened after a certain period of use.
This characteristic was found also in an analysis of the two inner frames-those adorned with gold and black. Like the picture panels, these frames were produced within a brief span of time, a fact which clearly indicates that the entire work had been commissioned as one.
The city arms of Antwerp have. Four panels have been stamped with a small clover mark Fig. This was used by the.
This unique survival has recently been restored. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Sweden. This subject is taken from Saxo and belongs to the sequence dealing with legendary Danish kings.
Fridlev is seen slaying a dragon with a sword, spears having proved useless. In the background, the king's men are unearthing the dragon's treasure.
Unfortunately, the carpenter's identity cannot be established with any certainty. It is possible that he was Guilliam Aertssens before after though his mark was slightly different.
South wall no. The mark is seen on the back of eight of the pictures Figs 4 and 4a. Even more significantly, the mark was also found on the outer, black frames of thirteen of the twenty-seven.
This clearly shows that, while several carpenters were engaged in the manufacture of the panels at the same time, it is probable that only one panel maker framed most of them.
If this man was Guilliam Aertssens, it is possible that he had been commissioned to supply all the panel paintings.
If that is the case, the paintings should be described as Antwerp works and not broadly as Netherlandish. Comparative analysis of drawings, prints and paintings by Antwerp artists of the period has so far produced direct or related prototypes for about sixty of the paintings in the Winter Room.
Such collaboration is found in three of the finest panel paintings, comparable with works found in major European museums. Furthermore, in one instance, Hendrik van Balen I assisted as easel painter.
The cut-off section is on the north wall, and was originally the right-hand third of the picture. This divided painting contributed to the earlier assumption that the paintings were in Christian IV's collection prior to the fitting-out of the Winter Room.
However, the frame around the painting on the south wall carries the five-pointed star mark of an Antwerp frame maker.
Fifteen hunting scenes are in the style of David Vinckboon c. However, the artist who painted them must have been from Antwerp, as shown by marks on the back, and he probably came from the circle of Vrancx.
They show Ceres, Bacchus and Venus Fig. The pictures of the three deities are placed next to each other in the centre of the south wall and illustrate a proverb in common use at the time: 'Without Ceres and Bacchus Venus freezes.
The year is inscribed over the fireplace. It is tempting, then, to lend symbolic meaning to the Winter Room in relation to the marriage with Kirsten Munk.
Indeed it is particularly apt to interpret the entire Rosenborg as a castle of love. After all, the very division of the castle into a female and a male section would be symbolic of this.
The southern, female wing is adorned with a Venus figure on the gable. The gable of Christian IV's northern, male wing is embellished with a figure of Mars, its execution inspired by a print of Hendrik Furthermore, although the Goltzius.
It is true to say that, in type, Rosenborg is related to contemporary Netherlandish interpretations of romantic palaces.
To begin with, in its first version it was ready in May In the brickwork behind the panelling one can see that the door into the study in the tower was moved one foot further north.
The original door opening, behind the panelling, has a grey-painted frame and its existence confirms that the Winter Room had two periods of decoration.
A month later, this decision was sanctioned by the Guild of St Luke. The decision of the carpenters' craft was clearly put into practice immediately.
It follows that the panels, not to mention the paintings, cannot have been produced until after December ; in other words, in the spring of at the earliest.
The many registered, identical plane marks on panels and frames bear witness to quick and simultaneous work.
Presumably, the few paintings without a maker's mark, and the painting dated , had been in the stock of an art dealer or board maker in Antwerp.
In order to honour the huge commission from Christian IV for seventy-five paintings, he probably took what he had in stock, besides commissioning various painters to produce a given number of paintings as soon as possible.
Perhaps he himself supplied the boards, and on receipt of the paintings, he gave them prefabricated frames. In fact, many of the paintings show marks in the paint which were made accidentally after the framing, showing that the paint of the pictures was not quite dry at the time.
This, too, is proof of the speed with. Oil on panel. Thus, the Winter Room which was ready by May was not that which we see today. In , Christian IV decided to demolish the interior of the 'old' room and to commission the making of a new one, for which careful directives were given.
Among these was the order for seventy-five paintings from Antwerp. They were produced in Antwerp standard format,"7 including two frames for insertion in the oak wall panels.
In order to fit in paintings and frames it was necessary to alter the oak panelling. This part of the work was executed with such haste that the altered parts were not given the same finish as that of the surface of the other parts.
The work was carried out in the period between and In the latter year, a Danish joiner, Hans J0rgen Dill, received his payment for the final stages of the work on 'the large panel works' in the king's palatial country house outside Copenhagen.
It was only in that the Winter Room appeared in all its splendour. Nowhere else has anything similar survived intact, and as it has recently been restored it can be enjoyed now largely in its original form.
My discussions wHh him about the panel makers' marks were most fruitful. Rombouts and Th. Josst de Momptr der JUllgere.
Molbech, 'Uddrag af K. In these 'architedur. This is seen against the background Dr J. Dill was paid his final fee in July In a painting of a studio scene by David Rijckaert II rr To the right an assistant is grinding pigments in oil, and in the left background another artist is working on his painting.
At this man's feet, next to his easel, we see the back of a panel which is standing against the wall. Looking at this panel carefully we observe that it is issued with the Antwerp brand.
I Rijckaert signals in this way, that he is buying the best, approved panels from his fellow guild members, the panel-makers.
The branding iron with the Antwerp Coat of Arms would have been carried by the dean to the panel-maker's workshop where, if the panels were approved, it would be heated enough to burn its image in the oak.
The Antwerp brand is often present on panel paintings produced in Antwerp in the seventeenth century, many times in combination with a panel-maker's mark.
Hitherto no comprehensive list of the diverse designs of the Antwerp brand, two open hands above a castle with three towers, has been published. This article is a first attempt to list the different Antwerp brands as found on early rl h century panels, their design, size, and other characteristics, in chronological order.
The original marking of the suppOrt is a documentary source that was largely neglected in the past bur which provides new evidence on art production in the seventeenth century in a broader, informative framework.
The Antwerp Brand To date the only published list of brands is that of H. De Smedt, concerning Antwerp retables dated between r He also states that knowledge of these marks could add more information than just the provenance or the quality control of the object.
Van Der Straelen's publication of the guild rules of St. Luke in Antwerp is a rich source of information concerning the examining and branding of retables, sculptures, and altarpieces.
Luke Guild's regulations of November 9th, Two years later, The branding of Antwerp panels for easel paintings was not described until , where it was carefully laid Ollt in the Joiners' Guild regulations, first published by Van Damme in Hands of the Antwerp Brand mId G.
Gabroll's monogram. Photo courtesy of Christie's, Amsterdam. However, reality seems to have been different. We have encountered numerous panels with weak, worm-eaten sapwood in the join dating from before the panel was sold to the painter ; panels with partly charred planks, all of them nevertheless branded by the dean and thus accepted as a painters' support.
The regulations for panel making were initiated at a time when about twenty or more: panel makers' workshops were trying to supply the demand for panels.
A better organisation of the profession was necessary, with restrictions about schooling and proof of mastery, which had earlier not been put on paper.
As a consequence, when examining Antwerp panel paintings, one often finds an individual panel-maker's mark stamped on the back in combination with the Antwerp brand.
In his later article, which contains a list of paintings with individual panelmakers' marks, the scale of this practice was demonstrated.
Item is from now on every joiner obliged to impress his mark on frames and panels made by him, against a penalty of three guilders.
A number of individuals had alIeady started marking panels in Nevertheless, empirically we can state that these can be considered exceptions due to the scant amount recorded, and that marking on a larger scale took place after r J0rgen Wadum In this context it is interesting to note that often paintings which stylistically would be dated to the sixteenth century are painted on panels bearing marks on the back from well known 17th century panel-makers.
For example a painting attributed to the circle of Ambrosius Benson d. This demonstrates the interest in Antwerp in copies after 'old masters'.
Many were produced in the early 17th century. Standardisation of panel formats While compiling a list of panels with marks it became obvious thatthe majority of the panels apparently consisted of standard sizes.
The standardisation of elements in art production in Antwerp goes back to the large retable production in previous centuries. Furthermore, the joiners' regulations of , 7, explicitly state, that panels from now on should be made in sizes based on the models kept at the guild office.
If they only had a few ready which they wanted to be delivered to his studio, they could in fact all have identical marks, although of differing size.
However, the painters may not have required such a large number of panels at one moment, so the newly branded panels may easily have been distributed to a number of studios.
The term dosijn wercken does therefore not necessarily relate to a mediocre quality of paintings as suggested by Floerke in , but to the standard sizes of the joiners or panel-makers' panels.
It should be mentioned that frames were also made to fit these standard sizes, and in some cases were even marked with the maker's house-mark.
Panels which clearly diverge from a standard size, but which have a brand, have either been cut down on one or more edges, or been furnished with additions.
This is often the case with panels used by Peter Paul Rubens, and most interestingly, almost exclusively for his 'private', not commissioned, paintings such as landscapes or family portraits.
The panel was extended at three sides, left, right, and bottom edge here the grain runs perpendicular to the rest of the panel.
On the back of the pane! The position of the brand clearly indicates that. Whatever accident caused the trimming of the top we cannot know, however it resulted in the addition at the bottom, before Rubens began his portrait.
From archival sources we know of at least one case where Rubens's panel was modified by his favourite panel maker, Michiel Vrient. On the lIth of May Vrient was paid 38 guilders for enlarging the panel, which for the High Altar in the Antwerp Cathedral was found too smal!.
Chronology The brands show a large variety of shapes of the towers and hands indicating the many different irons used. The Guild papers of the Panel and Frame Makers in mention' Luke, in which the branding irons plural!
De Smedt found that the brands on late fifteenth and early sixteenth century retables changed from concrete forms towards a more abstract design over time'S, which also seems to be the pattern of our findings concerning branded panels used by painters during the first half of the seventeenth century.
From very detailed renderings of the castle and the hands they become more conceptual. The exact form and dimension of these marks, so far often ignored, are for example important additional information for dating the objects and should therefore be taken into account.
The shape of the hands and the castle have sometimes only undergone slight changes from one branding iron to another. In other cases there are very significant differences.
The position of the hands may vary, they may be parallel or at an angle; the thumbs may point inwards or outwards.
The castle may have a detailed architecture with windows, archways and gun slits, or may be just stylised or simply seen as a silhouette.
With a few exceptions it seems that after c. This means that the original idea of first branding with the hands for the quality of the wood and subsequently with the castle to approve the polychromy and gilding, ,8 had been dropped, something common when branding e.
In some cases one might find the castle not necessarily directly under the hands. The panels showing these phenomena may be from the transition period before the new guild rules of , when the old branding irons for the separate approval for the carving and polychromy were still in use.
The panel-makers' personal marks found in combination with the Antwerp brand may indicate when a particular iron was in use.
Often the same iron was used to brand many of the panels of an individual panel-maker, which would be logical when considering that the panelmaker would normally have at least a dozen panels ready for evaluation at a time.
Out of a rotal of 10 recorded brands from iron no. Iron no. Yet more significant is the presence of Guilliam Aertssen's mark on six out of the eighteen known panels branded with iron no.
Furthermore the brand from this iron is the only one found in conjunction with Aertssen's mark, with one exception. This could be explained by suggesting that the keurmeester, the guild representative making the evaluation, was always the same person, visiting this specific panel-maker, and using the same his preferred iron.
If so it could suggest that this individual was favoured by the panel-maker for approving his work.
Or was the keurmeester, elected by the members of the Guild, in fact the panel-maker Guilliam Aertssen himself? Panels from panel-makers such as Guilliam Gabron GG and Michiel Vrient MV , were branded with the largest variety of branding irons, which in Gabron's case could be explained by his very long career, from Vrient's career, on the other hand, was not long, It has not as yet been possible to make any firm terminus ante or post quem for the branding irons.
However, there seem to be certain periods when they were in use. These can be discerned by comparing the active period of the panel-maker and the dates of the artist who painted on the panel bearing his mark.
Panels 'signed' by a panel-maker which are also branded with the Antwerp mark indicate, if the craftsman's dates are known, the period a specific branding iron was in use.
However, knowing which years the painter who used the panel was active, also helps us to date the branding irons.
Branding iron number , was used for branding panels made by the panel-makers G. It must have been in use before Hans Claessen died.
Branding iron number loA has only been found once in conjunction with a pane! Teniers became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in , after which date we may expect him to have required his pane!.
A panel of Pieter Breughel II was also branded with this iron, which tOgether with the other information seems to encircle the use of this branding iron to the middle of the 'S fig.
The mOllogram! Jas made with Cobran's second punch t6r9-r Tassel, Paris. RF On Fr. In between is the early monogram of G.
Gabron GG-I, r Valls, London. I I Brand no. Lijtens, Winterlandscape. Arldriessell signed , Vanitas Still-Life Courtesy of v. Waterman, Amsterdam.
Vrient's 1Il0lrogram, MV. Conclusion An exhaustive cataloguing process is necessary in order to date the different irons more accurately.
Only cautious dating of the period of use for a specific branding iron is possible at the current time.
Based on the data, available from the recording of panels with the Antwerp brand on the back, we can now presume that several branding irons were already available in , when the regulations on branding were established.
The irons no. I to 4 seem the earliest, staying in use until into the 'S or late 'S. Around three irons were introduced, two of which, 6 and 7 were in use almost until Three of these brands are found in use well into the 'S, after which date we have no secure records of the practice of branding panels.
It is notable that there seems to be three distinct periods where a new set of branding irons were issued, Simulraneously most earlier issued irons seems to disappear from use.
Obviously through continually adding to the list of documented brands, especially on securely dated paintings with marks, it may be possible to refine the above mentioned list further.
As has been shown the Antwerp Brand and panel-makers' marks may contribute to the correct dating of a painting on panel and to placing it in a broader context.
We therefore appeal to museums and collections to share information on marks, or reproduce them in catalogues, as has become common practice with watermarks found in drawings and prints, which are comparable to panel makers' marks as a source of information.
Many marks are still present on panels, however, it takes a highly trained eye to discover the more fragmented impressions, just as it requires a trained dendrochronologist to correctly record the year rings on a panel.
When deducing the probable period of use of a given Antwerp branding iron, several factors play an important role: the active years of the panel maker and the active years of the painter.
However, although we have tried to eliminate the most ambitious attributions of a painting to a master, several data may occur which are in fact not fully reliable.
Quantifying data with so many variables will therefore to some extent be based on a subjective interpretation. The dates given below are to be seen as the outside period within which a specific mark occurs.
More information on marked panels with exact dates is therefore needed in order to refine the results.
The present results must be regarded as a first attempt to give an overview of the potential for the registration of branding marks.
In order to give the reader an insight into the deduction of dates presented in this article representative examples shall be given.
All dates written in italics are the author's estimates given by the present evidence. It will be obvious that there are many cross-references of exact dates but also of tentative dates, which widens the error margin considerably.
It should further be noted, that panel-makers' and artists' dates are based on their active years as masters of the Guild of St.
Luke in Antwerp. In the following scheme the panels are listed chronologically according to active years of the panel-makers.
DBase Dated Branding id-no. The third column indicates the no. After the brand number the probable period of its use is noted, based on a deduction of the frequency of use within specific periods.
Examples will follow below. Finally the right column gives the monogram of the panel-maker whose mark was identified on this specific panel, followed by an indication of his active years as a supplier of wooden supports to the artists in Antwerp.
From the list we can see that the letter A occurs on panels dated between r, except in one instance, where a tentative dating was set to This could, however, be explained either by an erroneous dating or by the fact that this particular panel stayed in the painter's studio for a considerable period before it was actually used.
When the letter A is found with an Antwerp brand marks: 1 and 4 it is seen to have been in use during the period between Panel no. This seems to confirm an early date for the letter A.
Also the end of Guilliam Aertssens career in One of the most productive Antwerp panel-makers, Michiel Vrient active , is clearly the one on whose panels the letter A appears most often: nine times out of a total of fifteen.
The estimated date, The same goes for some calculations relating to active years of unknown panel-makers or for a specific panel-maker's use of two or more distinctly different punches for the marking of their monograms.
Branding mark no. Out of these, three panels also show the capital letter A branded into the back, the lise of which has been set to between A panel with the id-no.
However, the artist, Jan Brueghel I, who painted the panel was active only between , confirming an early use of the letter A. Six further panels with branding mark no.
This would further confirm the use of branding iron no. This indication is subsequently affirmed by panel no. Conclusion: branding mark no.
This is further confirmed by panel no. The terminus ante quem can be set to based on the statistical evidence provided by 16 panels our of the 25 definitely being made before this date, as shown by the death of the respective panel-makers.
Seven other panels have been made by panel-makers' or painted by artists active within a period of between and Conclusion: Branding iron no.
Example 3: Branding iron no. Panels issued with branding mark no. The latter, panel no. Nicolas is active between and , however, the artist who used his panel was only active until Out of the ten panels with brand no.
Conclusion: Mk: Acknowledgements In the late I98o's the compilation of information presented in this paper begun. This would not have been possible without the generous help of a very large number of individuals, museums, auction houses, and art dealers world wide.
I am eXIremely grateful for all their enthusiasm in sharing their discoveries of the various marks, in particular to Ms.
Sarah Lidsey, Vice President of Christie's, New York, who since the beginning of this survey have kept me continuously informed.
I am also indebted to Nicola Costaras and Erma Hermens for suggestions and inspiration during the final stages of preparing the manuscript. Panel, 73,8 x cm.
Musee des Beaux-Arts, inv. This survey is to be seen as the result of what until 2 now has been documented by the author. Furthet accumulation of branding as well as panel-makers' marks is necessary to refine the results.
We are grateful for any further information on marks, either in the form of rubbings 01 photographs. This article gives a vcr ' useful introduction to the practice of branding Antwerp retables, and describes the origin of this procedure see also the following note.
Van Ocr Srraelen and published by P. Moons - J. Van Der Straelen, op. Van Damme, 'De Anrwerpse "Taferee! Van Damme, op. Dardes and A. Rothe, eds.
Par41 Getty Museum, April The Getry Conservation Institute and the J. Paul Gerry Museum [Forthcoming Van Damme, 'De Anrwerpse tafereelmakers en hun merken.
The following examples, from the invenrory of the painter Frans Francken [, who died in Anrwerp 3 October , confirm this: 'Een Ceucken op panee!
Fames Historiae Artis Neerlandicae. Brussel See also B. Cardon, 'Aantekeningen bij de Annunciatie uit het voormalige cellebroedersklooster to Diest..
Jahrhu"dert, Mi. Was sie feilboten, mochte sciten etwas anderes sein als Schlerarbeiten und Kopien, die bei Malern, welche grosse Ateliers hielten, sehr haufig im i.
The cheapest paintings of this kind came from Brabam and were called "Brabam Works-in-the-Dozen"].
Bruijn, 'Een onderzoek naar 17de-eeuwse schilderijformaten, voornamelijk in Noord-Nederland', Olld Holland, 93 , p. Brown, Rubens's Landscapes. Making and Meaning, Exh.
Vrient died in , we have a period of four years within which the paiming must have been executed. See the forthcoming catalogue raisonne of the Portraits in the Mallritshuis .
Emma, Tochter von B. Lageschulte Y barely readable Starb den 1 Feb. Willie, Sohn von F. Grabenkort Y gest.
Etta L. Schroeder Y barely readable died Sept. Frankie J. Listharkey -- Y barely readable Died Dec. Freddie C.
George H. Landwer Y fallen, unreadable Died Mar. Theodore son of T. Frye Y fallen, barely readable Died Mar 13,, Aged 3 ms. Infant dau. Rekie Y barely readable Died July 7, , aged 7 d's.
Caroline dau. Knauss Y died Feb. Row 4 begins at the south line and runs north to roughly the center - reading extant in ?
Y or N notes Mary Wilmer, wife of J. Elfrink Y Died Jan. Caroline Elfrink Y fallen, broken geb. Saveley Y new Benson, Pearl H.
Benson Y Wiseman Born Mar. Row 5 begins roughly at the center and runs to the north line - reading extant in ? Johann Ternant Y barely readable gest.
Johann, Sohn von B. Gieske Y fallen, sunken geb. Katharina Scheibel top of stone missing Y fallen geb. August Beinlich Y gest. Mary, Tochter von C.
Rieke Y fallen, unreadable Starb den 10 Jan. Mina, Gattin von H. Landwer Y fallen, barely readable Starb den 23 Oct.
Gerhard L. Listharkey Y broken died Dec. Louisa Wessel Y top missing, unreadable gest. Heinrich Meiners Y fallen, sunken Starb 30 Nov.
Louis Wessel Y fallen, sunken gest. Mary, Frau von Wm. Watgen geb. Shoppen Y top broken off, barely readable gest.
Maria, F rau von sche, geb. Suiker N base only Starb Aug. Henry son of L. Listharkey N base only Died Mar. Adelade wife of C.
Rieke Y fallen, broken, sunken Died Jan. Row 6 begins at the south line and runs north - reading extant in ? Little Johnnie's grave: John J.
Elfrink Y barely readable Died Sep. Willie F. Elfrink stone down Y barely readable Died Oct. Garret H. Elfrink Y barely readable Died Aug. Anna E.
Brommelkamp, wife of Henry J. Elfrink N base only Born Dec. Milo A. Lydia M. John Y part of the Listhartke family plot. Frau von Friedrich Miller Hannah geb.
Friedrich Müller Y base very badly cracked Starb den Nov. Samuel son of J. Landwer Y barely readable Died Aug.
Willie G. Bertha, Tochter von A. Wolthausen Y fallen Starb 10 Jan. Henry son of H. Gieske Y barely readable died Sept. Adelheit Louise, Frau von L.
Lizzie, Toch. K -- Y Y fallen, broken, unreadable Starb Nov. Anna Berdina, Toch. Row 7 begins at south line and runs north - reading extant in ?
Y or N notes 4. Elfrink Y Father, Bernhard Mother, Adalaide gap in row - location of old church. Mary D. Albert son of P.
Hoffmann Y barely readable Died Sept. Florence W. Anna C. Mena dau. Listharkey Y fallen, broken, unreadable Died June 23,, Aged 13 y's.
Emma, Died Feb.